Understanding Kubernetes Part-II

10 minute read

In our previous chapter from #k8sSeries which is “Understanding Kubernetes Part-I” we discussed about what is Kubernetes and also we learnt various components of the Kubernetes cluster. In this chapter we will discuss or deep drive inside Pods Scalability and Kubernetes Networking Model.

Pods Scalability

Lets assume that we have a Kubernetes Cluster which consists of one Control Pannel node and two Worker nodes. We instructed kubernetes using kubectl to deploy pod with replica set 3. As a result it deployed 2 # of pods on Worker Node A and 1 # of pod in Worker Node B to distribute the workload.

"Kubernetes Cluster"

Now just think about what will happen if the Worker Node B will go offline due to certain reasons. Answer to this question is the controller will deploy one more replica of the pod on Worker Node A.

"Kubernetes Cluster with a failed Worker Node"

Why the controller deployed the 3rd replica set to the Worker Node A and not Control Panel node? And answer to this is by default Control panel node is designed to only host the system pods. You can tweak kubernetes cluster configuration to host deployment pods on the Control Panel node but it’s not advisable to do in production clusters. You can experiment in your development cluster.

Kubernetes Networking Model

Since Kubernetes cluster consist of various nodes and pods, understanding how they communicate with each other is very essential. Kubernetes provides IP address to each pod hence it doesn’t require to map host ports to the container ports. All Pods can communicate with all other Pods without using network address translation (NAT). All Nodes can communicate with all Pods without NAT.

Kubernetes networking situation:

  • Container-to-Container
  • Pod-to-Pod
  • Pod-to-Service
  • Internet-to-Service

In Linux each process on your machine communicates inside a network namespace. This namespace creates a logical networking stack with its own network devices, firewall rules, and routes. When you run a process, it is assigned by default to your root network namespace. This provides the process with external access. Let’s discuss about the above Kubernetes network variations one by one.

Container-to-Container:

In Kubernetes containers are grouped as pods, each with a shared namespace. In pod each container will have same IP and port and port space. They can use localhost to communicate with each other as they are within same namespace.

Pod-to-Pod

As we know to distribute load Kubernetes Controller can deploy pods across several Worker Nodes or it could be on the same Worker Node as well. In Kubernetes each pod has a real IP address and each pod communicates with other pods using that IP address. Now we have to understand how the communication is happening in between pods using Real IP address, where they may or may not located in a same worker node.

Let’s start discussing pods on the same node. From pods prospective each pods exists in it’s own Ethernet namespace that needs to communicate with other network namespace on the same node. In Linux namespaces can connect with each other using Virtual Ethernet Device or veth pair consisting of two virtual interface that can spread over multiple namespaces. To connect pod network namespace we can assign one side of the veth pair to the root namespace and other to the pod’s network namespace. Now the veth pair will work like a patch cable and allow traffic to flow between. Same configuration needs to be applied to the all pods exists on the Worker node. After the pod got connected to the root namespace it will be able to connect to the other pods using a network bridge.

A Linux Ethernet bridge is a virtual Layer 2 networking device used to unite two or more network segments, working transparently to connect two networks together. The bridge operates by maintaining a forwarding table between sources and destinations by examining the destination of the data packets that travel through it and deciding whether or not to pass the packets to other network segments connected to the bridge. The bridging code decides whether to bridge data or to drop it by looking at the MAC-address unique to each Ethernet device in the network.

So far we were able to know how the packet moves in between pods which are located in a same machine. But now we will discuss how a pod will communicate with another pod located on a different machine. Each Node on the Kubernetes cluster is assigned with a CIDR block specifying the IP addresses available to the Pods on that Node. Once the traffic for a CIDR reaches at the Node, it’s the Node’s responsibility to forward that traffic to the relevant pod. But if the CIDR is not there in the Node then the packet will be routed to the root namespace i.e. the eth0 device. Now the packet will enter in the network and will be routed to the Node which has the correct CIDR and the bridge interface of that Node will route the packet to it’s correct pod.

Internet-to-Service

Nodes inside the Kubernetes cluster are firewalled from the internet hence the IP’s assigned to the Services in Kubernetes cluster are only accessible inside the cluster only. To access the services hosted in Kubernetes cluster we have to use a loadbalancer which could route the traffic from internet to the one of the Nodes of the Kubernetes cluster. Then the Node knows how to route the traffic to the service.

Kubernetes Networking Model Implementations

Kubernetes does not provide a default network implementation, it only enforces a model for third-party tools to implement. Below are some popular networking models:

Flannel

Flannel is a simple and easy way to configure a layer 3 network fabric designed for Kubernetes.

Project Calico

Calico is an open source networking and network security solution for containers, virtual machines, and native host-based workloads.

Wave Net

Weave Net is a powerful cloud native networking toolkit. It creates a virtual network that connects Docker containers across multiple hosts and enables their automatic discovery.

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